Driver Installation with Zadig

QMK presents itself to the host as a regular HID keyboard device, and as such requires no special drivers. However, in order to flash your keyboard on Windows, the bootloader device that appears when you reset the board often does.

There are two notable exceptions: the Caterina bootloader, usually seen on Pro Micros, and the HalfKay bootloader shipped with PJRC Teensys, appear as a serial port and a generic HID device respectively, and so do not require a driver.

We recommend the use of the Zadig utility. If you have set up the development environment with MSYS2, the qmk_install.sh script will have already installed the drivers for you.

Installation

Put your keyboard into bootloader mode, either by hitting the RESET keycode (which may be on a different layer), or by pressing the reset switch that's usually located on the underside of the board. If your keyboard has neither, try holding Escape or Space+B as you plug it in (see the Bootmagic docs for more details). Some boards use Command instead of Bootmagic; in this case, you can enter bootloader mode by hitting Left Shift+Right Shift+B or Left Shift+Right Shift+Escape at any point while the keyboard is plugged in. Some keyboards may have specific instructions for entering the bootloader. For example, the Bootmagic Lite key (default: Escape) might be on a different key, e.g. Left Control; or the magic combination for Command (default: Left Shift+Right Shift) might require you to hold something else, e.g. Left Control+Right Control. Refer to the board's README file if you are unsure.

To put a device in bootloader mode with USBaspLoader, tap the RESET button while holding down the BOOT button. Alternatively, hold BOOT while inserting the USB cable.

Zadig should automatically detect the bootloader device, but you may sometimes need to check Options → List All Devices and select the device from the dropdown instead.

!> If Zadig lists one or more devices with the HidUsb driver, your keyboard is probably not in bootloader mode. The arrow will be colored orange and you will be asked to confirm modifying a system driver. Do not proceed if this is the case!

If the arrow appears green, select the driver, and click Install Driver. See the list of known bootloaders for the correct driver to install.

Zadig with a bootloader driver correctly installed

Finally, unplug and replug the keyboard to make sure the new driver has been loaded. If you are using the QMK Toolbox to flash, exit and restart it too, as it can sometimes fail to recognize the driver change.

Recovering from Installation to Wrong Device

If you find that you can no longer type with the keyboard, you may have accidentally replaced the driver for the keyboard itself instead of for the bootloader. This can happen when the keyboard is not in the bootloader mode. You can easily confirm this in Zadig - a healthy keyboard has the HidUsb driver installed on all of its interfaces:

A healthy keyboard as seen by Zadig

Open the Device Manager and look for a device that looks like your keyboard.

The board with the wrong driver installed, in Device Manager

Right-click it and hit Uninstall device. Make sure to tick Delete the driver software for this device first.

The Device Uninstall dialog, with the "delete driver" checkbox ticked

Click Action → Scan for hardware changes. At this point, you should be able to type again. Double check in Zadig that the keyboard device(s) are using the HidUsb driver. If so, you're all done, and your board should be functional again! Otherwise, repeat the process until Zadig reports the correct driver.

?> A full reboot of your computer may sometimes be necessary at this point, to get Windows to pick up the new driver.

List of Known Bootloaders

This is a list of known bootloader devices and their USB vendor and product IDs, as well as the correct driver to assign for flashing with QMK. Note that the usbser and HidUsb drivers are built in to Windows, and cannot be assigned with Zadig - if your device has an incorrect driver, you must use the Device Manager to uninstall it as described in the previous section.

The device name here is the name that appears in Zadig, and may not be what the Device Manager or QMK Toolbox displays.

Bootloader

Device Name

VID/PID

Driver

atmel-dfu

ATmega16u2 DFU

03EB:2FEF

libusb0

atmel-dfu

ATmega32U2 DFU

03EB:2FF0

libusb0

atmel-dfu

ATm16U4 DFU V1.0.2

03EB:2FF3

libusb0

atmel-dfu

ATm32U4DFU

03EB:2FF4

libusb0

atmel-dfu

none (AT90USB64)

03EB:2FF9

libusb0

atmel-dfu

AT90USB128 DFU

03EB:2FFB

libusb0

qmk-dfu

(keyboard name) Bootloader

As atmel-dfu

libusb0

halfkay

none

16C0:0478

HidUsb

caterina

Pro Micro 3.3V

1B4F:9203

usbser

caterina

Pro Micro 5V

1B4F:9205

usbser

caterina

LilyPadUSB

1B4F:9207

usbser

caterina

Pololu A-Star 32U4 Bootloader

1FFB:0101

usbser

caterina

Arduino Leonardo

2341:0036

usbser

caterina

Arduino Micro

2341:0037

usbser

caterina

Adafruit Feather 32u4

239A:000C

usbser

caterina

Adafruit ItsyBitsy 32u4 3V

239A:000D

usbser

caterina

Adafruit ItsyBitsy 32u4 5V

239A:000E

usbser

caterina

Arduino Leonardo

2A03:0036

usbser

caterina

Arduino Micro

2A03:0037

usbser

bootloadHID

HIDBoot

16C0:05DF

HidUsb

USBasp

USBasp

16C0:05DC

libusbK

apm32-dfu

APM32 DFU ISP Mode

314B:0106

WinUSB

stm32-dfu

STM32 BOOTLOADER

0483:DF11

WinUSB

kiibohd

Kiibohd DFU Bootloader

1C11:B007

WinUSB

stm32duino

Maple 003

1EAF:0003

WinUSB