Bootmagic

Last updated 11 months ago

Bootmagic

There are three separate but related features that allow you to change the behavior of your keyboard without reflashing. While each of them have similar functionality, it is accessed in different ways depending on how your keyboard is configured.

Bootmagic is a system for configuring your keyboard while it initializes. To trigger a Bootmagic command, hold down the Bootmagic key and one or more command keys.

Bootmagic Keycodes are prefixed with MAGIC_, and allow you to access the Bootmagic functionality after your keyboard has initialized. To use the keycodes, assign them to your keymap as you would any other keycode.

Command, formerly known as Magic, is another feature that allows you to control different aspects of your keyboard. While it shares some functionality with Bootmagic, it also allows you to do things that Bootmagic does not, such as printing version information to the console. For more information, see Command.

On some keyboards Bootmagic is disabled by default. If this is the case, it must be explicitly enabled in your rules.mk with:

BOOTMAGIC_ENABLE = full

?> You may see yes being used in place of full, and this is okay. However, yes is deprecated, and ideally full (or lite) should be used instead.

Additionally, you can use Bootmagic Lite (a scaled down, very basic version of Bootmagic) by adding the following to your rules.mk file:

BOOTMAGIC_ENABLE = lite

Hotkeys

Hold down the Bootmagic key (Space by default) and the desired hotkey while plugging in your keyboard. For example, holding Space+B should cause it to enter the bootloader.

Hotkey

Description

Escape

Ignore Bootmagic configuration in EEPROM

B

Enter the bootloader

D

Toggle debugging over serial

X

Toggle key matrix debugging

K

Toggle keyboard debugging

M

Toggle mouse debugging

Backspace

Clear the EEPROM

Caps Lock

Toggle treating Caps Lock as Left Control

Left Control

Toggle swapping Caps Lock and Left Control

Left Alt

Toggle swapping Left Alt and Left GUI

Right Alt

Toggle swapping Right Alt and Right GUI

Left GUI

Toggle the GUI keys (useful when gaming)

`

Toggle swapping ` and Escape

\

Toggle swapping \ and Backspace

N

Toggle N-Key Rollover (NKRO)

0

Make layer 0 the default layer

1

Make layer 1 the default layer

2

Make layer 2 the default layer

3

Make layer 3 the default layer

4

Make layer 4 the default layer

5

Make layer 5 the default layer

6

Make layer 6 the default layer

7

Make layer 7 the default layer

Keycodes

Keycode

Aliases

Description

MAGIC_CAPSLOCK_TO_CONTROL

Treat Caps Lock as Left Control

MAGIC_UNCAPSLOCK_TO_CONTROL

Stop treating Caps Lock as Left Control

MAGIC_HOST_NKRO

Force N-Key Rollover (NKRO) on

MAGIC_UNHOST_NKRO

Force NKRO off

MAGIC_TOGGLE_NKRO

Turn NKRO on or off

MAGIC_NO_GUI

Disable the GUI keys (useful when gaming)

MAGIC_UNNO_GUI

Enable the GUI keys

MAGIC_SWAP_ALT_GUI

AG_SWAP

Swap Alt and GUI on both sides (for macOS)

MAGIC_UNSWAP_ALT_GUI

AG_NORM

Unswap Left Alt and Left GUI

MAGIC_TOGGLE_ALT_GUI

AG_TOGG

Toggle Left Alt and GUI swap

MAGIC_SWAP_BACKSLASH_BACKSPACE

Swap \ and Backspace

MAGIC_UNSWAP_BACKSLASH_BACKSPACE

Unswap \ and Backspace

MAGIC_SWAP_CONTROL_CAPSLOCK

Swap Left Control and Caps Lock

MAGIC_UNSWAP_CONTROL_CAPSLOCK

Unswap Left Control and Caps Lock

MAGIC_SWAP_GRAVE_ESC

Swap ` and Escape

MAGIC_UNSWAP_GRAVE_ESC

Unswap ` and Escape

MAGIC_SWAP_LALT_LGUI

Swap Left Alt and Left GUI

MAGIC_UNSWAP_LALT_LGUI

Unswap Left Alt and Left GUI

MAGIC_SWAP_RALT_RGUI

Swap Right Alt and Right GUI

MAGIC_UNSWAP_RALT_RGUI

Unswap Right Alt and Right GUI

Configuration

If you would like to change the hotkey assignments for Bootmagic, #define these in your config.h at either the keyboard or keymap level.

Define

Default

Description

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_SALT

KC_SPACE

The Bootmagic key

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_SKIP

KC_ESC

Ignore Bootmagic configuration in EEPROM

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_EEPROM_CLEAR

KC_BSPACE

Clear the EEPROM configuration

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_BOOTLOADER

KC_B

Enter the bootloader

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_DEBUG_ENABLE

KC_D

Toggle debugging over serial

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_DEBUG_MATRIX

KC_X

Toggle matrix debugging

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_DEBUG_KEYBOARD

KC_K

Toggle keyboard debugging

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_DEBUG_MOUSE

KC_M

Toggle mouse debugging

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_SWAP_CONTROL_CAPSLOCK

KC_LCTRL

Swap Left Control and Caps Lock

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_CAPSLOCK_TO_CONTROL

KC_CAPSLOCK

Toggle treating Caps Lock as Left Control

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_SWAP_LALT_LGUI

KC_LALT

Toggle swapping Left Alt and Left GUI (for macOS)

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_SWAP_RALT_RGUI

KC_RALT

Toggle swapping Right Alt and Right GUI (for macOS)

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_NO_GUI

KC_LGUI

Toggle the GUI keys (useful when gaming)

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_SWAP_GRAVE_ESC

KC_GRAVE

Toggle swapping ` and Escape

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_SWAP_BACKSLASH_BACKSPACE

KC_BSLASH

Toggle swapping \ and Backspace

BOOTMAGIC_HOST_NKRO

KC_N

Toggle N-Key Rollover (NKRO)

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_DEFAULT_LAYER_0

KC_0

Make layer 0 the default layer

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_DEFAULT_LAYER_1

KC_1

Make layer 1 the default layer

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_DEFAULT_LAYER_2

KC_2

Make layer 2 the default layer

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_DEFAULT_LAYER_3

KC_3

Make layer 3 the default layer

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_DEFAULT_LAYER_4

KC_4

Make layer 4 the default layer

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_DEFAULT_LAYER_5

KC_5

Make layer 5 the default layer

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_DEFAULT_LAYER_6

KC_6

Make layer 6 the default layer

BOOTMAGIC_KEY_DEFAULT_LAYER_7

KC_7

Make layer 7 the default layer

Bootmagic Lite

In addition to the full blown Bootmagic feature, is the Bootmagic Lite feature that only handles jumping into the bootloader. This is great for boards that don't have a physical reset button but you need a way to jump into the bootloader, and don't want to deal with the headache that Bootmagic can cause.

To enable this version of Bootmagic, you need to enable it in your rules.mk with:

BOOTMAGIC_ENABLE = lite

Additionally, you may want to specify which key to use. This is especially useful for keyboards that have unusual matrices. To do so, you need to specify the row and column of the key that you want to use. Add these entries to your config.h file:

#define BOOTMAGIC_LITE_ROW 0
#define BOOTMAGIC_LITE_COLUMN 1

By default, these are set to 0 and 0, which is usually the "ESC" key on a majority of keyboards.

And to trigger the bootloader, you hold this key down when plugging the keyboard in. Just the single key.

!> Using bootmagic lite will always reset the EEPROM, so you will lose any settings that have been saved.

Advanced Bootmagic Lite

The bootmagic_lite function is defined weakly, so that you can replace this in your code, if you need. A great example of this is the Zeal60 boards that have some additional handling needed.

To replace the function, all you need to do is add something like this to your code:

void bootmagic_lite(void) {
matrix_scan();
wait_ms(DEBOUNCING_DELAY * 2);
matrix_scan();
if (matrix_get_row(BOOTMAGIC_LITE_ROW) & (1 << BOOTMAGIC_LITE_COLUMN)) {
// Jump to bootloader.
bootloader_jump();
}
}

You can additional feature here. For instance, resetting the eeprom or requiring additional keys to be pressed to trigger bootmagic. Keep in mind that bootmagic_lite is called before a majority of features are initialized in the firmware.