Driver Installation with Zadig

QMK presents itself to the host as a regular HID keyboard device, and as such requires no special drivers. However, in order to flash your keyboard on Windows, the bootloader device that appears when you reset the board often does.

There are two notable exceptions: the Caterina bootloader, usually seen on Pro Micros, and the Halfkay bootloader shipped with PJRC Teensys, appear as a serial port and a generic HID device respectively, and so do not require a driver.

We recommend the use of the Zadig utility. If you have set up the development environment with Msys2 or WSL, the script will have asked if you want it to install the drivers for you.


Place your keyboard into the bootloader mode, either by hitting the RESET keycode (which may be on a different layer), or by pressing the reset switch usually located on the underside of the board. If your keyboard has neither, try holding Escape, or Space+B, as you plug it in (see the Bootmagic docs for more details). Some keyboards may have specific instructions for entering the bootloader, for example the Bootmagic Lite key (Escape) might be on a different key, such as Left Control. Refer to the board's README if you are unsure.

Zadig will automatically detect the bootloader device. You may sometimes need to check Options -> List All Devices.

  • For keyboards with Atmel AVR MCUs, the bootloader will be named something similar to ATm32U4DFU, and have a Vendor ID of 03EB.

  • USBasp bootloaders will appear as USBasp, with a VID/PID of 16C0:05DC.

  • AVR keyboards flashed with the QMK-DFU bootloader will be named <keyboard name> Bootloader and will also have the VID 03EB.

  • For most ARM keyboards, it will be called STM32 BOOTLOADER, and have a VID/PID of 0483:DF11.

!> If Zadig lists one or more devices with the HidUsb driver, your keyboard is probably not in bootloader mode. The arrow will be colored orange and you will be asked to confirm modifying a system driver. Do not proceed if this is the case!

If the arrow appears green, select the driver, and click Install Driver. The libusb-win32 driver will usually work for AVR, and WinUSB for ARM, but if you still cannot flash the board, try installing a different driver from the list.

Zadig with a bootloader driver correctly installed

Finally, unplug and replug the keyboard to make sure the new driver has been loaded. If you are using the QMK Toolbox to flash, exit and restart it too, as it can sometimes fail to recognize the driver change.

Recovering from Installation to Wrong Device

If you find that you can no longer type with the keyboard, you may have installed the driver onto the keyboard itself instead of the bootloader. You can easily confirm this in Zadig - a healthy keyboard has the HidUsb driver installed on all of its interfaces:

A healthy keyboard as seen by Zadig

Open the Device Manager and look for a device that looks like your keyboard.

The board with the wrong driver installed, in Device Manager

Right-click it and hit Uninstall device. Make sure to tick Delete the driver software for this device first.

The Device Uninstall dialog, with the "delete driver" checkbox ticked

Click Action -> Scan for hardware changes. At this point, you should be able to type again. Double check in Zadig that the keyboard device(s) are using the HidUsb driver. If so, you're all done, and your board should be functional again!