Early initialization

This page describes a part of QMK that is a somewhat advanced concept, and is only relevant to keyboard designers.

QMK uses ChibiOS as the underlying layer to support a multitude of Arm-based devices. Each ChibiOS-supported keyboard has a low-level board definition which is responsible for initializing hardware peripherals such as the clocks, and GPIOs.

Older QMK revisions required duplication of these board definitions inside your keyboard's directory in order to override such early initialization points; this is now abstracted into the following APIs, and allows usage of the board definitions supplied with ChibiOS itself. Check <qmk_firmware>/lib/chibios/os/hal/boards for the list of official definitions. If your keyboard needs extra initialization at a very early stage, consider providing keyboard-level overrides of the following APIs instead of duplicating the board definitions:

early_hardware_init_pre() :id=early-hardware-init-pre

The function early_hardware_init_pre is the earliest possible code that can be executed by a keyboard firmware. This is intended as a replacement for the ChibiOS board definition's __early_init function, and is the equivalent of executing at the start of the function.

This is executed before RAM gets cleared, and before clocks or GPIOs are configured; for example, ChibiOS delays are not likely to work at this point. After executing this function, RAM on the MCU may be zero'ed. Assigning values to variables during execution of this function may be overwritten.

As such, if you wish to override this API consider limiting use to writing to low-level registers. The default implementation of this function can be configured to jump to bootloader if a RESET key was pressed:

config.h override

Description

Default

#define EARLY_INIT_PERFORM_BOOTLOADER_JUMP

Whether or not bootloader is to be executed during the early initialisation code of QMK.

FALSE

#define STM32_BOOTLOADER_ADDRESS

Relevant for single-bank STM32 MCUs, signifies the memory address to jump to bootloader. Consult AN2606 for the System Memory address for your MCU. This value should be of the format 0x11111111.

<none>

#define STM32_BOOTLOADER_DUAL_BANK

Relevant for dual-bank STM32 MCUs, signifies that a GPIO is to be toggled in order to enter bootloader mode.

FALSE

#define STM32_BOOTLOADER_DUAL_BANK_GPIO

Relevant for dual-bank STM32 MCUs, the pin to toggle when attempting to enter bootloader mode, e.g. B8

<none>

#define STM32_BOOTLOADER_DUAL_BANK_POLARITY

Relevant for dual-bank STM32 MCUs, the value to set the pin to in order to trigger charging of the RC circuit. e.g. 0 or 1.

0

#define STM32_BOOTLOADER_DUAL_BANK_DELAY

Relevant for dual-bank STM32 MCUs, an arbitrary measurement of time to delay before resetting the MCU. Increasing number increases the delay.

100000

Kinetis MCUs have no configurable options.

Alternatively, to implement your own version of this function, in your keyboard's source files:

void early_hardware_init_pre(void) {
// do things with registers
}

early_hardware_init_post() :id=early-hardware-init-post

The function early_hardware_init_post is the next earliest possible code that can be executed by a keyboard firmware. This is executed after RAM has been cleared, and clocks and GPIOs are configured. This is intended as a replacement for the ChibiOS board definition's __early_init function, and is the equivalent of executing at the end of the function.

Much like early_hardware_init_pre, ChibiOS has not yet been initialized either, so the same restrictions on delays and timing apply.

If you wish to override this API, consider limiting functionality to register writes, variable initialization, and GPIO toggling. The default implementation of this function is to do nothing.

To implement your own version of this function, in your keyboard's source files:

void early_hardware_init_post(void) {
// toggle GPIO pins and write to variables
}

board_init() :id=board-init

The function board_init is executed directly after the ChibiOS initialization routines have completed. At this stage, all normal low-level functionality should be available for use (including timers and delays), with the restriction that USB is not yet connected. This is intended as a replacement for the ChibiOS board definition's boardInit function.

The default implementation of this function is to do nothing.

To implement your own version of this function, in your keyboard's source files:

void board_init(void) {
// initialize anything that requires ChibiOS
}