GPIO Controls

QMK has a GPIO control abstraction layer which is microcontroller agnostic. This is done to allow easy access to pin control across different platforms.

Functions :id=functions

The following functions can provide basic control of GPIOs and are found in quantum/quantum.h.

Function

Description

Old AVR Examples

Old ChibiOS/ARM Examples

setPinInput(pin)

Set pin as input with high impedance (High-Z)

DDRB &= ~(1<<2)

palSetLineMode(pin, PAL_MODE_INPUT)

setPinInputHigh(pin)

Set pin as input with builtin pull-up resistor

DDRB &= ~(1<<2); PORTB \|= (1<<2)

palSetLineMode(pin, PAL_MODE_INPUT_PULLUP)

setPinInputLow(pin)

Set pin as input with builtin pull-down resistor

N/A (Not supported on AVR)

palSetLineMode(pin, PAL_MODE_INPUT_PULLDOWN)

setPinOutput(pin)

Set pin as output

DDRB \|= (1<<2)

palSetLineMode(pin, PAL_MODE_OUTPUT_PUSHPULL)

writePinHigh(pin)

Set pin level as high, assuming it is an output

PORTB \|= (1<<2)

palSetLine(pin)

writePinLow(pin)

Set pin level as low, assuming it is an output

PORTB &= ~(1<<2)

palClearLine(pin)

writePin(pin, level)

Set pin level, assuming it is an output

(level) ? PORTB \|= (1<<2) : PORTB &= ~(1<<2)

(level) ? palSetLine(pin) : palClearLine(pin)

readPin(pin)

Returns the level of the pin

_SFR_IO8(pin >> 4) & _BV(pin & 0xF)

palReadLine(pin)

togglePin(pin)

Invert pin level, assuming it is an output

PORTB ^= (1<<2)

palToggleLine(pin)

Advanced Settings :id=advanced-settings

Each microcontroller can have multiple advanced settings regarding its GPIO. This abstraction layer does not limit the use of architecture-specific functions. Advanced users should consult the datasheet of their desired device and include any needed libraries. For AVR, the standard avr/io.h library is used; for STM32, the ChibiOS PAL library is used.

Atomic Operation

The above functions are not always guaranteed to work atomically. Therefore, if you want to prevent interruptions in the middle of operations when using multiple combinations of the above functions, use the following ATOMIC_BLOCK_FORCEON macro.

eg.

void some_function() {
// some process
ATOMIC_BLOCK_FORCEON {
// Atomic Processing
}
// some process
}

ATOMIC_BLOCK_FORCEON forces interrupts to be disabled before the block is executed, without regard to whether they are enabled or disabled. Then, after the block is executed, the interrupt is enabled.

Note that ATOMIC_BLOCK_FORCEON can therefore be used if you know that interrupts are enabled before the execution of the block, or if you know that it is OK to enable interrupts at the completion of the block.